The brigade is the mother of order. How and how citizens of the USSR helped the police

90 years ago, on April 29, 1932, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR adopted a resolution on the reorganization of the police assistance societies (Osodmil) into the police assistance brigade (Brigadmil). If the former were subordinate to the executive committees of local councils, then the latter were created directly at police stations.

“Immediately report all violations”

Almost the main assistants of the police in tsarist Russia, and then of the worker-peasant militia, were janitors. They were given whistles in order to call for the help of law enforcement officers if necessary. The  instructions for Moscow janitors, issued in 1922 , said: “Immediately report all violations to the police, providing the latter with possible assistance in the matter of overseeing public order.”

Even when the authorities were being formed, many Bolsheviks believed that under the conditions of the socialist revolution, the armed proletariat was quite capable of replacing the professional police. However, in the end, a worker-peasant militia was created, designed to professionally protect law and order. And Soviet workers began to be involved in the fight against crime and protection of public order on a voluntary or voluntary-compulsory basis. However, there were also proposals to transfer the functions of the police to the workers themselves in the order of public service and to maintain order with a variable composition. At the  IX All-Russian Congress of Soviets, one of delegates bluntly stated, they say, “the police in our is engaged exclusively in drunkenness and bribery”, and proposed to completely liquidate it, and "to entrust the police service to the population itself».

From Osodmil to Brigadmil

In the early 1920s, the number of police in the RSFSR was reduced by 60%. Meanwhile, the participation of the population in maintaining order was quite chaotic, there were no uniform norms regulating the activities of public men. The most massive form of assistance to the police was the society for the assistance of the police. By & nbsp; the middle of 1930  the number of Osodmil cells was approximately 4000, and the Osodmilians themselves numbered about 50,000. They have prevented thousands of offenses and crimes.

By the end of 1932  instructions appeared on the organization of the work of the reformed police assistance brigades. Brigadmil could join people who were not under trial and investigation and who had reached the age of 18. The brigades themselves were created not at enterprises, but at city departments, departments, and militia strongholds. Brigadiers served on guard duty together with policemen, were on duty at police stations, during mass events and festivities. But not only. They participated in operational work, they along with full-time police officers were given firearms.

Quite often it happened that the Brigadiers, instead of protecting public order, violated it themselves. So, the internal affairs bodies by & nbsp; July 1934 & nbsp; brought about 1.5 thousand criminal cases against brigadiers and recorded more than 5 thousand cases. offenses on their side.

In 1937  a new instruction was issued on the organization and practical use of police assistance brigades. First of all their work was directed to fighting pests and spies, anti-Soviet elements and disorganizers of production. The territorial principle of organizing brigades was also allowed. Brigadiers were not allowed to be used as couriers and room cleaners. It was also forbidden to involve them in conducting operational and investigative actions, checking passports and house books. They were categorically forbidden to give out weapons.

Nevertheless, more and more brigades of police assistance appeared. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War, they consisted of about 400,000 people. people.

В communism — without a bully and policeman

During the war period, the number of police assistance brigades decreased several times. Many went to the army, to the militia. Directive of the NKVD No. 205 of 28 August 1941  militia assistance brigades were included in the groups for the protection of public order (GOOP). They checked the evacuees and  refugees, observance of the passport regime and  blackout, could check the documents of all suspicious people. GOOP were organized in many settlements, in cities and rural areas. By the end of 1942, almost a million people had joined these groups. Only from 1941 to 1943, the goopovtsy detained about 200 thousand suspicious persons for verification, tens of thousands of firearms and a large amount of ammunition were seized in front-line areas.

In the spring of 1946 & nbsp; the groups disbanded and many returned to Brigadmil. The police assistance brigades existed until the second half of the 1950s. Then the fight against the gangsterism that raged after the war was successfully completed, and the party directed the brigadiers to fight dudes — not "Soviet style" dressed young men showing “unhealthy interest” in to western way of life, music and culture. The dude was worked out at Komsomol meetings, they were said about them: “Today he” plays jazz, and “tomorrow he will sell his homeland.” Neatly cut and dressed Brigadiers chased them down the streets; students of 1957 when Muscovites did not have seen enough of this. Meanwhile, Khrushchev seriously thought about  building communism in the country and decided that neither violators nor guardians of order had anything to do there. “What do are we counting on?” — inquired Nikita Sergeevich.   Shall we take both a hooligan and a policeman into  communism to pacify him?  Communism, alas, did not come, but hooligans and other criminals did not disappear. Well, at least Khrushchev did not abolish the police, but it was no longer brigadiers who began to help her, but voluntary people's combatants.

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