Turbines to the fleet. Russia has solved the problem of ship engines

The engine has been the heart of a warship since the days of steam engines. The heart of the modern ship & ndash; gas turbine. In the USSR, their production was located in Ukraine. This was the case after the collapse of the country. But in 2014, supplies stopped. How did you solve the problem?

About this “ AiF '' told the director & nbsp; Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies Ruslan Pukhov. & Nbsp;

Ships with someone else's heart

– Ruslan Nikolaevich, how did it happen that the release of strategically important engines turned out to be localized abroad?

– As they say, “ it happened historically. '' Remember the phrase L. I. Brezhnev that the economy should be economical? So they tried to make it less costly. In the USSR, the development and production of naval gas turbines and gas turbine units was carried out in one place – in Nikolaev in the Ukraine. There, back in the 50s, a specialized design bureau Mashproekt was created for this, as well as a powerful serial plant – the production association Zorya. & Nbsp; These enterprises produced all gas turbine engines and units for the ships of the USSR Navy without exception.

After the collapse of the USSR by the authorities of independent Ukraine, both enterprises were merged into the “ Scientific and Production Complex of Gas Turbine Construction '' Zorya – Mashproekt ''. & Nbsp; For 15 years he continued to supply gas turbines for Russian ships. & Nbsp;

– And that, in Russia, no one thought that relations with Ukraine could come to an impasse?

– It cannot be said that this situation did not weigh on the Russian fleet. & Nbsp; Already in 1992, on the initiative of the sailors, design work began on the creation of Russian naval gas turbine engines in Rybinsk. There, on the basis of the Soviet gas generator “ product 77 '' 7000 hp M75RU marine gas turbine engines were developed. with. and M70FRU with a capacity of 14,000 liters. with. They were made for a long time, state tests were completed only in 2006-2008. The engine builders were not in a hurry. The complete cessation of the new surface military shipbuilding in Russia from the mid-90s to the end of the 2000s made the topic of Russian naval gas turbines irrelevant. The Rybinsk engines never entered the series, the need for single turbines was fully satisfied with products from Ukraine. & Nbsp;

Ukraine against?

But in the 2000s, & nbsp; construction of modern frigates. Were they also designed for Ukrainian engines?

Yes, 6 frigates under the project 11356 of the “ Admiral Grigorovich '' type were ordered for the Navy with gas turbine engines and gearboxes for them from Zori-Mashproekt, because then it was believed that the development and organization of a sufficiently small-scale production of engines for them in Russia would delay the construction of ships for too long.

Everything had to be urgently changed after the annexation of Crimea, when in June 2014 the Ukrainian government imposed a ban on the supply of ship engines to Russia. By that time, sets of gas turbines were shipped to Russia only for the first two frigates of Project 22350 out of eight under construction at Severnaya Verf. Petersburg, and for the first three frigates of Project 11356 out of six ordered to the Yantar plant in Kaliningrad.

The construction of ships that did not receive the main power plants stopped. As a result, three unfinished frigates of Project 11356 will never raise the St. Andrew's flag. Two of them are being completed for India (it independently bought the engines already made for them from Ukraine), the third is also hoping to sell to someone. With regard to the new frigates of project 22350, which should form the core of the updated Russian fleet, drastic measures were taken.

Not right away, but our own

What measures exactly? After all, such complex products as gas turbine engines do not appear at the click of your fingers.

In 2014, the United Engine Corporation Rostec (UEC), within the framework of the state program of import substitution, began accelerated revision and development of serial production of the main gas turbine engine M90FR with a capacity of 27,500 hp. with. It was supposed to replace the M90F engine from the Soviet era, produced in Nikolaev.

At the same time, work began on the modernization and bringing the M70FRU engines to serial production, which I have already mentioned. The main attention, of course, was paid to the M90FR engine, which is badly needed for the “ stuck '' frigates of the “ Admiral Gorshkov '' type.

By the end of 2017, the task of import substitution in Rybinsk was successfully solved. The first set of completely Russian gas turbine engines M90FR was loaded at the end of 2020 on the third frigate of project 22350 “ Admiral Golovko '' under construction & nbsp; Now it can be delivered to the Navy in 2022. The following sets went to the frigate Admiral Isakov. and a corvette of the new project 20386 'Mercury'. Contracts have been signed for the manufacture of engines for 4 more ships of Project 22350. Thus, the production of Russian M90FR engines has entered a rhythmic basis and is able to meet the needs of sailors for new ships.

It is assumed that the M90FR will become the basis for promising marine engines. higher capacity, work on which in the UEC has already begun.

You mentioned another engine, M70FRU with a capacity of 14,000 hp. with. What ships is it for?

As a propulsion engine – for corvettes, frigates, destroyers. Its version M70FRU-2 is intended for the Murena air-cushion landing craft. and “ Bison ''. On the basis of M70FRU, a civil marine engine E70/8RD has also been developed.

Tell me, import substitution in the field of gas turbine engines & ndash; was that the only way to get them?

After Ukraine refused to sell them to us & ndash; Yes. In addition to it, until recently, only the USA and Great Britain produced powerful engines of this class in the world. In Italy and Japan, such engines are produced under American licenses. For more than 20 years, the same China went to the production of copies of Nikolaev ship gas turbines, which began only a few years ago, having a license agreement with Zorya-Mashproekt. and large-scale assistance from the Nikolaev specialists.

The independent organization in just a few years in Russia of a completely own serial production of several types of ship gas turbine engines has become a major achievement of the Russian defense industry. Thus, Russia itself was able to eliminate the bottleneck that gravitated over our military shipbuilding for almost three decades. dependence on Ukrainian supplies of power plants.

In April 2017, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin personally attended the launch of tests of a new Russian gas turbine engine for the Zubr-class hovercraft. He recalled that it all began in 2014, “ when some partners refused to supply to Russia. '' “ Then we made a decision: we will not do something in the middle, but we will work out our own new products, our new solutions, our new machines, and we even went to the right to shift the program of rearmament of the Russian fleet to the right, waiting for your car ', – said the President of the Russian Federation.

Источник aif.ru

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